Areas of Research

Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Research

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The development of new research collaborations and projects to investigate the field of manual medicine and osteopathic medicine has positioned the OMM Department to substantially enhance medical education nationwide, and research within the osteopathic profession.

OMM research consists of collaborative research involved in interdepartmental, interscholastic and interdisciplinary projects. In large part due to the added efforts of the Ohio Musculoskeletal and Neurological Institute (OMNI), located within the Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic  Medicine, our department has conducted research in biomechanics, aging, orthopedics and many other vital fields.

OMM Research Publications


Perez L, Sneed J, Eland D, "Evidence-based osteopathic manipulative treatment for common conditions", Osteopathic Family Physician, Volume 4, Number 1, January/February 2012, Elsevier.


Joseph M. Helms, Stevan A. Walkowski, Mitchell Elkiss, Donna Pittman, Nick S. Kouchis, and Bradley Lawrence. HMI Auricular Trauma Protocol: An Acupuncture Approach for Trauma Spectrum Symptoms. Medical Acupuncture, Vol. 23, No. 4, December 2011: 209-213. [ Full Text ]

Walkowski, SA. Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine: A Functional Approach to Pain. Chapter in Pain Procedures in Clinical Medicine. Elsevier. 2011.

Walkowski, SA., section ed. Complementary Therapies.  Pain Procedures in Clinical Medicine.  Elsevier.  2011.

Clark, BC, DA Goss,S Walkowski, RL Hoffman, A Ross and JS Thomas. Neurophysiologic effects of spinal manipulation in patients with chronic low back pain.  BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2011, 12:170.           [ Full Text ]

Kumika Toma, Stevan Walkowski, Kristen Metzler-Wilson, and Thad E. Wilson.Acupuncture attenuates exercise-induced increases in skin sympathetic nerve activity. Autonomic Neuroscience. Volume 162, Issues 1-2, 5 July 2011, 84-88. [ Full Text ]

Campbell SM, Sammons DL, Sarsama-Nixon RM, Holsinger JM, Stephenson S,Walkowski S. Dermatology:a specialty that exemplifies the osteopathic medical profession. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2011;111(5): 335-338. [ Full Text

Walkowski SA. New current and distinctive terminology: osteopath and physician [letter]. J AmOsteopath Assoc. 2011; 111(3):141-142. [ Full Text ]


David A. Goss, Jr, OMS-II, James S. Thomas, PT, PhD, Stevan A. Walkowski, DO, Andrew. J. Ross, RichardL. Hoffman, Brian C. Clark, PhD.  Effect of spinal manipulation on coricospinal and stretch reflexexcitability in patients with chronic low back pain.  Poster at OU-COM Research Day 2010. [ Full Text ]

K. Goodrum, PhD, S. Walkowski, DO, A. King, OMS-III, M. Pate, BS, F. Benencia, PhD.  Mechanisms of Immune Modulation by Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment; Effect of Lymphatic Pump on Circulating Leukocytes, Cytokines and Nitric Oxide.  A Pilot Study.  Poster at OU-COM Research Day 2010.

Kumika Toma, PhD, Stevan Walkowski, DO, Kristen Metzler-Wilson, PT, PhD and Thad Wilson,PhD. Acupuncture Attenuates Exercised-Induced Increases in Skin Sympathetic Nerve Activity. Poster at OU-COM Research Day 2010

CORE Osteopathic Principles and Practices Committee, Stevan A. Walkowski, Chairman. OMM Quick Card. March 2010.


S Walkowski, Clark, BC, RR Conatser, DC Eland and JN Howell. MRI Assessment of Responses to Manipulative Treatment of Individuals with Low Back Pain. Poster presented at OU-COM Research Day, 2009. Poster accepted for presentation, AOA Convention, 2009.

Clark, BC, S Walkowski, RR Conatser, DC Eland and JN Howell. Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging and acute low back pain: A pilot study to characterize lumbar muscle activity asymmetries and examine the effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment. Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care 2009, 3:7 [ Full Text ]

Walkowski, SA, DC Eland, BC Clark, RR Conaster, JN Howell. MRI Assessment of Responses toManipulative Treatment of Individuals With Low Back Pain.  JAOA, 2009. 109:8, 426. Abstract. [ Full Text ]

Shannon M. Campbell DO, Dawn L. Sammons DO, Ramona M. Sarsama-Nixon DO, Sean Stephenson DO, J. Michael Holsinger DO, Stevan Walkowski DO. Dermatology: A specialty that exemplifies the osteopathic medical profession. Poster at Ohio Dermatological Association, 2009.   


Jennifer Drost, B.S.; Wayne Carlsen, D.O.; Stevan Walkowski, D.O. Augmented Ventilation: A Novel Approach To Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Poster Presentation, 2008 Research Day, Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, Ohio.

Kenneth N. Nelson and Stevan A. Walkowski, D.O. Perceived Emotional Stress and the Effect of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment. Poster Presentation, 2008 Research Day, Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, Ohio.

Korrie Waters, BS, OMS II, Stevan Walkowski, D.O. Correlation between Vertebral Dysfunction and Three Common Diagnoses. Poster Presentation, 2008 Research Day, Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, Ohio

John N. Howell, Robert R. Conatser, Robert L. Williams, II, Janet M. Burns, and David C. Eland. Palpatory Diagnosis Training on the Virtual Haptic Back: Performance Improvement and User Evaluations.  J Am Osteopath Assoc 2008;108 29-36 [ Full Text ]


Eland, D.C. Palpatory Evidence for Viscero-somatic Influence upon the Musculoskeletal System, The AAO Journal, Vol 16, No 3 September 2006, pp. 21-24.

Howell, J.N., Cabell, K.S., Wynne, M.M., Eland, D.C., Chila, A.G. "Stretch Reflex and Hoffman Reflex Responses to Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment in Subjects with Achilles Tendonitis".  J Am Osteopath Assoc 2006; 106  537-545 [ Full Text ]

Howell, J.N., Williams, R.L. II, Conatser, R.R., Burns, J.M., and Eland, D.C. Stretch Reflex and Hoffmann Reflex Responses to Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment in Subjects With Achilles Tendinitis, Journal of American Osteopathic Association, September 2006, Volume 106, Number 9.

Wynne, M.M., Howell, J.N., Conatser, R.R., Burns, J.M., and Eland, D.C. Effect of Counterstrain on Stretch Reflexes, Hoffmann Reflexes, and Clinical Outcomes in Subjects with Plantar Fasciitis, Journal of American Osteopathic Association, September 2006, Volume 106, Number 9. [ Full Text ]

Howell, J.N., Williams, R.L. II, Conatser, R.R., Burns, J.M., and Eland, D.C. The Virtual Haptic Back (VHB): Detection of Compliance Differences, 2006 Digital Human Modeling for Design & Engineering Conference of the Society of Automotive Engineers, July 4-6, 2006, Lyon, France Publications - Peer Review - Journal Articles Published (cont.) [ Full Text ]

Eland, D.C.  Local Motion vs. Passive Regional Motion - Implications & Applications - Osteopathische Medizin, Spring 2006, Elsevier Press.


Williams, R.L. II, Howell, J.N., Conatser, R.R., Burns, J.M., and Eland, D.C. Palpatory training on The Virtual Haptic Back improves detection of compliance difference, Eurohaptics 2006.

The Virtual Haptic Back (VHB): A Virtual Reality Simulation of the Human Back for Palpatory Diagnostic Training.  John N. Howell, R.L. Williams II, R.R. Conatser, J.M. Burns, D.C. Eland.  Published in Symposium Proceedings - 2005 SAE Digital Human Modeling for Design and Engineering Symposium, June 14-16,2005, at Iowa City, Iowa.

The effect of mastery learning on self-efficacy in applying a therapeutic psychomotor skill. Mann, D. D.,& Eland, D. C., Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2005, 100, 77-84. [ Abstract ]


The Virtual Haptic Back for Palpatory Training, R.L. Williams II, M. Srivastava, J.N. Howell, R.R. Conatser, Jr., D.C. Eland, J.M. Burns, and A.G. Chila, 2004, Sixth International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces, Penn State Univ.,  October 13-15, 2004. (Accepted) [ Full Text ]


The Iliacus Test: New Information for the Evaluation of Hip Extension Dysfunction. David C. Eland, D.O., Tiffani Singleton, B.S., Robert Conaster,M.S., John Howell, Ph.D., Alfred Pheley, Ph.D., Melynda Karlene, B.S., Joynita Robinson, D.O.   Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, Chicago.  (Peer reviewed section) Vol 102, No.3, March 2002, Pp.130-142. [ Full Text ]


Measurement challenges in physical diagnosis: refining inter-rater palpation, perception and communication.  Z. Comeaux, D. Eland, A. Chila, A. Pheley, M. Tate.  Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies.  Vol. 5, No. 4; October 2001, Pp.245-253. [ Abstract ]

A Model for (Focused) Osteopathic Evaluation of "Iliacus" Function and Dysfunction. David C. Eland, D.O. American Academy of Osteopathy Journal. Pp.15-39, June 2001


Increasing OMT skills and confidence through mastery learning.  Douglas Mann, Ph.D., David C. Eland, D.O., David A. Patriquin, D.O., Dan F. Johnson, M.A..  Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, Chicago.  Pp.301-304.(Peer reviewed; May, 2000) [ Abstract ]